Our Stolen Futurea book by Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers
 
 

 

Widespread Pollutants
with Endocrine-disrupting Effects

[background information about some common EDCs]

Information is regularly added to this page.
If you have additions--new data on chemicals, references,
corrections or things we missed, etc.--
send information here

Persistent organohalogens

Compound(s)
Hormone system affected

Mechanism if known

References
Benzenehexachloride (BHC)

Thyroid

Akhtar et al. 1996

1,2-dibromoethane

Reproductive

 

Brittebo et al. 1987

Chloroform

Reproductive

 

Brittebo et al. 1987

Dioxins and furans

(in order of antiestrogenic potency : 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin > 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran > 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-furan > 1,2,3,7,9-pentachlorodibenzofuran > 1,3,6,8-tetrachlo-rodibenzofuran)

Estrogen

work as anti-estrogen through binding with Ah receptor, which then inhibits estrogen receptor binding to estrogen response elements, thereby inhibiting estrogen action

Krishnan and Safe 1993

Klinge et al. 1999

Octachlorostyrene Thyroid   Sandan et al. 2000

PBBs

Estrogen/ Thyroid

Bahn et al. 1980

Henderson et al. 1995

PCBs

(in order of antiestrogenic potency: 3,3' -pentachlorobiphenyl > 3,3,4,4,5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl 3,3',4,4-tetrachlorobiphenyl > 2,3,3',4,4',5'-hexa, 2,3,3',4,4'- and 2,3,4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl > Aroclors 1221, 1232. 1248, 1254, and 1260 were inactive as antiestrogens at the highest concentrations used in this study (10-6 Ni)

Estrogen/androgen/Thyroid

Adverse outcomes in reproductive systems.

Inhibits estrogen binding to the receptor; works as anti-estrogen.

anti-androgenic via Ah receptor interaction

Korach et al. 1988

Zoeller et al. 2000

Grey et al. 1999

PCB, hydroxylated

Thyroid

Binds to thyroid hormone binding protein, but not to the thyroid hormone receptor.

Cheek et al. 1999

PBDEs

Thyroid

Interfere with thyroxine (T4) binding with transthryetin

Ilonka et al. 2000

Pentachlorophenol

Thyroid

Reduces thyroid hormone possibly through a direct effect on the thyroid gland.

Bear et al. 1999

Gerhard et al. 1999

Food Antioxidant

Compound
Hormone system affected

Mechanism

References

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

Estrogen

Inhibits binding to the estrogen receptor.

Jobling et al. 1995

 

Pesticide (for information organized by pesticide class)

Compound
Hormone system affected

Mechanism

References
Acetochlor

Thyroid (decrease of thyroid hormone levels, increase in TSH)

Hurley et al. 1998

Alachlor

Thyroid (decrease of thyroid hormone levels, increase in TSH)

Wilson et al. 1996

Aldrin

Estrogen

Binds to estrogen receptors; competes with estradiol.

Jorgenson 2001

Allethrin, d-trans

Estrogen

Go et al. 1999

Amitrol

Thyroid

Thyroid peroxidase inhibitors; inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis.

Hurley et al. 1998

Atrazine

Neuroendocrine-pituitary (depression of LH surge), testosterone metabolism.

Inhibits ligand binding to androgen and estrogen receptors.

Danzo 1997

Carbaryl

Estrogen and progesterone

Klotz et al. 1997

Chlofentezine

Thyroid

Enhances secretion of thyroid hormone.

Hurley et al. 1998

Chlordane

Testosterone and progesterone

Willingham et al. 2000

Cypermethrin

Disruption of reproductive function

Moore and Waring 2001

DDT

Estrogen

DDT and related compounds act in a number of ways to disrupt endocrine function by binding with the estrogen receptor, including estrogen mimickry and antagonism, altering the pattern of synthesis or metabolism of hormones, and (4) modifying hormone receptor levels

Soto et al. 1994

Lascombe et al. 2000

Kupfer et al. 1980

Rajapakse et al. 2001

DDT Metabolite, p,p'-DDE

Androgen

Inhibits androgen binding to the androgen receptor, androgen-induced transcriptional activity, and androgen action in developing, pubertal and adult male rats.

Kelce 1995

Dicofol (Kelthane)

Estrogen

 

Vinggaard et al. 1999

Dieldrin

Estrogen

Binds to estrogen receptor;competes with estradiol.

Soto et al. 1994

Jorgenson 2001

Endosulfan

Estrogen

Soto et al. 1994

Soto et al. 1995

Ethylene thiourea

Thyroid

Thyroid peroxidase inhibitor.

Hurley et al. 1998

Fenarimol

Estrogen

Estrogen receptor agonist.

Vinggaard et al. 1999

Fenbuconazole

Thyroid

Enhances secretion of thyroid hormone.

Hurley et al. 1998

Fenitrothion

Antiandrogen

Competitive androgen receptor antagonist.

Tamura et al. 2001

Fenvalerate

Estrogen

Go et al. 1999

Fipronil

Thyroid

Enhances secretion of thyroid hormone.

Hurley et al. 1998

Heptachlor

Thyroid

Akhtar et al. 1996

Reuber 1987

Heptachlor-epoxide

Thyroid/Reproductive

Metabolite of heptachlor

Reuber 1987

 

Iprodione

Inhibition of testosterone synthesis

Benhamed 1996

Karate

Thyroid

A decrease of thyroid hormone in serum; direct effect on the thyroid gland?

Akhtar et al. 1996

Kepone (Chlordecone)

Estrogen

Displays androgen and estrogen receptor-binding affinities.

Waller et al. 1996

Soto et al. 1994

McLachlan(ed)

Ketoconazole

Effects on reproductive systems

Marty et al. 1999

Marty et al. 2001

Lindane (Hexachlorocyclohexane)

Estrogen/Androgen

Inhibits ligand binding to androgen and estrogen receptors.

Danzo 1997

Linuron

Androgen

Androgen receptor antagonist.

Waller et al. 1996

Lambright et al. 2000

Grey et al. 1999

Malathion

Thyroid

Significant decrease of thyroid hormone in serum, with perhaps a direct effect on the thyroid gland.

Akhtar et al. 1996

Mancozeb

Thyroid

Thyroid peroxidase inhibitors.

Hurley et al. 1998

Maneb

Thyroid

The metabolite ethylenthiourea inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis.

 

Toppari et al. 1995

Methomyl

Thyroid

Porter et al. 1993

Klotz et al. 1997

Methoxychlor

Estrogen

Through mechanisms other than receptor antagonism. Precise mechanism still unclear.

Pickford and Morris 1999

Metribuzin

Thyroid

Porter et al. 1993

Mirex

Antiandrogenic activity; inhibits production of LH. Potentially thyroid.

Chen et al. 1986

Chernoff et al. 1976

Nitrofen

Thyroid

Structural similarities to the thyroid hormones; nitrofen or its metabolite may have thyroid hormone activities.

Stevens and Summer 1991

Nonachlor, trans-

Estrogen

Estrogen receptor agonist?

Willingham et al. 2000

Oxychlordane

Reproductive

Guillette et al. 1999

Pendimethalin

Thyroid

Enhances secretion of thyroid hormone.

Hurley et al. 1998

Pentachloronitrobenzene

Thyroid

Enhances secretion of thyroid hormone.

Hurley et al. 1998

Permethrin

Estrogenic

Go et al. 1999

Procymidone

Androgen

Androgen receptor antagonist.

Ostby et al. 1999

Grey et al. 1999

Prodiamine

Thyroid

Enhances secretion of thyroid hormone.

Hurley et al. 1998

Pyrimethanil

Thyroid

Enhances secretion of thyroid hormone.

Hurley et al. 1998

Sumithrin

Androgen

Go et al. 1999

Tarstar

Thyroid

A decrease of thyroid hormone in serum; direct effect on the thyroid gland?

Akhtar et al. 1996

Thiazopyr

Thyroid

Enhances secretion of thyroid hormone.

Hurley et al. 1998

Thiram

Neuroendocrine-pituitary (depression of LH surge), thyroid (decrease of T4, increase of TSH)

Stoker et al. 1993

Toxaphene

Estrogen/ Thyroid

Soto et al. 1994

Triadimefon

Estrogen

Estrogen receptor agonist.

Vinggaard et al. 1999

Triadimenol

Estrogen

Estrogen receptor agonist

Vinggaard et al. 1999

Tributyltin

Reproductive

Horiguchi et al. 2000

Trifluralin

Reproductive/ Metabolic

Rawlings et al. 1998

Vinclozolin

Androgen

Anti-androgenic. (Competes with androgens for the androgen receptor (AR), inhibits AR-DNA binding, and alters androgen-dependent gene expression.)

Soto et al. 1994

Soto et al. 1995

Kelce et al. 1994

Grey et al. 1999

Zineb

Thyroid

The metabolite ethylenthiourea inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis.

Toppari et al. 1995

Ziram

Thyroid

Inhibits the iodide peroxidase. Structural similarities between ziram and thiram; ziram can be metabolized to thiram in the environment.

Marinovich et al. 1997

Phthalate

Compound
Hormones affected

Mechanism

References
Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP)

Estrogen

Inhibits binding to the estrogen receptor

Jobling et al. 1995

Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)

Estrogen

Androgen

Inhibits binding to the estrogen receptor.

anti-androgenic

Jobling et al. 1995

Harris et al. 1997

Grey et al. 1999

Di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)

Estrogen

Androgen

Inhibits binding to the estrogen receptor.

anti-androgenic

Jobling et al. 1995

Harris et al. 1997

Moore et al. 2001

Grey et al. 1999

Diethyl Phthalate (DEP)

Estrogen

Harris et al. 1997

Other Compounds

Compound
Hormones affected

Mechanism

References

Benzophenone

Estrogen

Binds weakly to estrogen receptors, roles of its metabolite remain to be clarified.

Schlumpf et al. 2001

Bisphenol A

Estrogen

Estrogenic; binds to estrogen receptor

Fisher et al. 1999

Anderson et al. 1999

Rajapakse et al. 2001

Bisphenol F

Estrogen

Estrogenic; b inds to estrogen receptor

Perez et al. 1998

Benzo(a)pyrene

Androgen

anti-androgenic

Thomas 1990

Carbendazim

Reproductive

Gray et al. 1990

Ethane Dimethane Sulphonate

Reproductive

Gray et al. 1999

Perfluorooctane sulfonate
(PFOS)

Thyroid, reproductive

suppression of T3,T4; mechanism unknown

3M data

Nonylphenol, octylphenol

Estrogen

Estrogen receptor agonists; reduces estradiol binding to the estrogen receptor.

Soto et al. 1991

Soto et al. 1995

Danzo 1997

Lascombe et al. 2000

Rajapakse et al. 2001

 

Resorcinol

Thyroid

  Lindsay et al. 1989

Styrene dimers and trimers

Estrogen

Estrogen receptor agonists

Ohyama et al. 2001

Metals

Compound
Hormones affected

Mechanism

References
Arsenic

Glucocorticoid

Selective inhibition of DNA transcription normally stimulated by the glucocorticoid-GR complex.

Kaltreider et al. 2001

Cadmium

Estrogenic

Activates estrogen receptor through an interaction with the hormone-binding domain of the receptor.

Stoica et al. 2000

Johnson et al. 2003

Lead

Reproductive

Telisman et al. 2000

Hanas et al. 1999

Mercury

Reproductive/ Thyroid

Facemire et al. 1995

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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